ww2 bombing missions

A further design program was initiated in the late spring of 1942, to develop four-engine (and later six-engine) bombers with trans-Atlantic range to attack the continental United States and aptly named the Amerika Bomber. Another variable is Strategic vs. Tactical bombing. However, following estimates which the local authorities supported placed the figure at 25,000 – so much lower than the first estimate but still so many lives lost. Most high altitude daylight bombing raids flown by B-17's and B-24's were conducted between 18,000 and 24,000 feet. The operations against Bucharest resulted in destroying thousands of buildings and killing or injuring over 9,000 people according to unofficial statistics.[17]. The largest Soviet bomb of the war, an 11,000-pound weapon, was dropped on Königsberg during one of these raids. Erhard Milch, who strongly supported Goering's conceptions, was instrumental in the Luftwaffe's future. [227], Hoping to forestall the invasion, the United States, the United Kingdom, and China issued a Potsdam Declaration on 26 July 1945, demanding that the Japanese government accept an unconditional surrender. Thirteen B-24 Liberator heavy bombers under the command of Col. Harry A. Halverson from Fayid, Egypt dropped eight bombs into the Black Sea, two onto Constanța, six onto Ploiești, six onto Teișani, and several onto Ciofliceni. The only heavy bomber design to see service with the Luftwaffe in World War II was the trouble-prone Heinkel He 177A. Bombing efforts mostly targeted large Chinese cities such as Shanghai, Wuhan, and Chongqing, with around 5,000 raids from February 1938 to August 1943 in the latter case. [105] Any airmen who, intentionally or unintentionally, violated this order were punished. In 1940 and 1941, the Regia Aeronautica, seeking to disrupt Allied oil supplies, struck British targets in the Middle East, mainly using the CANT Z.1007 and Savoia-Marchetti SM.82 bombers. A few days later, Rostock suffered the same fate. International law at the outset of World War II did not specifically forbid aerial bombardment of cities despite the prior occurrence of such bombing during World War I, the Spanish Civil War, and the Second Sino-Japanese War. Also, the major powers' possession of newly developed advanced bombers was a great military advantage; they would be hard pressed to accept any negotiated limitations regarding this new weapon. The immediate aim, is therefore, twofold, namely, to produce (i) destruction and (ii) fear of death. The text of the Casablanca directive read: "Your primary object will be the progressive destruction and dislocation of the German military, industrial, and economic system and the undermining of the morale of the German people to a point where their capacity for armed resistance is fatally weakened. Hermann Göring’s speech in the Air Ministry building was delayed for 63 minutes by an air raid. Working-class homes were to be targeted because they had a higher density and fire storms were more likely. [105] Hitler's No. The paper copy of this book indicates it was first published in 1980. [195] It raided Helsinki for the first time on 24 August, Budapest on 4–5 and 9–10 September and Bucharest on 13–14 September. The first raid from the Mariana was on 24 November 1944, when 88 aircraft bombed Tokyo. Danger in English Skies During Asembly (Some sources say 6 planes, including the official Air Force records, but the wartime magazine Impact states 4.) The bombing of Ploiești on 1 August 1943 (Operation Tidal Wave) was a far more serious affair. Very interesting stuff, thanks for posting! Luftwaffe, RAF, USAAF, Japanese air fore, bombing raids, blitz : General. However, some argued that strategic bombing of non-military targets could significantly reduce enemy industrial capacity and production[32][33] and in the opinion of its interwar period proponents, the surrender of Japan vindicated strategic bombing. "[220] Priority targets were Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, and Kobe. It was a violent thermal cloud of smoke and debris that was drawn thousands of feet into the air by the heat of the huge fires and explosions from the bombing on the refinery. In the end, thanks in part to the dehousing paper, it was this view which prevailed and Bomber Command would remain an important component of the British war effort up to the end of World War II. A claim is made that Gene Roddenberry, screen writer for Star Trek, completed 89 missions in the 324th bomb squadron. As a matter of fact, almost 90% of the bombs dropped in Japan’s capital were done by B-29s. )[62], To conserve the strength of the bomber units for the upcoming Western campaign, the modern He 111 bombers were replaced by Ju 52 transports using "worse than primitive methods" for the bombing. [119][120], Still hoping that the British would negotiate for peace, Hitler explicitly prohibited attacks on London and against civilians. [105], On 22 June 1940, France signed an armistice with Germany. The most extreme examples of which were caused by Operation Gomorrah, the combined USAAF/RAF attack on Hamburg, (45,000 dead), attack on Kassel (10,000 dead), the attack on Darmstadt (12,500 dead), the attack on Pforzheim (21,200 dead), the attack on Swinemuende (23,000 dead) and the attack on Dresden (25,000 dead). Missions over Europe were flown by day, and German fighters found the lumbering British aircraft easy targets. Operation Hydra of August 1943 sought to destroy German work on long-range rockets but only delayed it by a few months. To put this into sobering perspective - the 8th Air Force in Europe lost more men than the entire US Marine Corps did in World War Two - both horrible thoughts to consider. By 1944, absenteeism rates of 20–25 percent were not unusual and in post-war analysis 91 percent of civilians stated bombing was the most difficult hardship to endure and was the key factor in the collapse of their own morale. There was resistance to this order from some senior figures, including Winston Churchill, Harris, and Carl Spaatz, but after some debate, control passed to SHAEF on 1 April 1944. But this is a game at which two can play. Raids of Japan from mainland China, called Operation Matterhorn, were carried out by the Twentieth Air Force under XX Bomber Command. [127][128][129] The next day, the RAF bombed Berlin for the first time, targeting Tempelhof airfield and the Siemens factories in Siemenstadt. The death toll released by the Nazi-controlled German press in 1945 was as high as 200,000. That night, a total of 274 American B-29 heavy bomber airplanes attacked the city leaving desolation in their wake. That same elements at work in the story gave its hands for men’s use and what resulted was the horrible apex brought about by WWII’s bombing campaigns. German-occupied France contained a number of important targets that attracted the attention of the British, and later American bombing. [24][25] When the United States began flying bombing missions against Germany, it reinforced these efforts and controversial firebombings were carried out against Hamburg (1943), Dresden (1945), and other German cities.[26]. During 1944 and 1945 Milan, Turin and Genoa were instead bombed by USAAF bombers, which mainly targeted factories and marshalling yards; nonetheless, imprecision in bombings caused further destruction of vast areas. The Luftwaffe was blamed for not warding off the attacks and confidence in the Nazi regime fell by 14 percent. It raided Berlin from 26–29 August and again on the night of 9–10 September with 212 planes. Darmstadt was not really a natural bombing target unlike other German cities; it was, after all, not an industrial town but a university one with the Merck chemical factory being the only main industry. In October 1943, Harris urged the government to be honest with the public regarding the purpose of the bombing campaign. The American bombing campaign gained intensity after the surrender of Germany in May 1945, and by July Japanese defences were incapable of impeding their movement. 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